Football fans around the world were stunned by the news that Wales star David Brooks has been diagnosed with cancer.
After leaving international assignment last week, the 24-year-old underwent medical examinations when she was confirmed to have stage 2 Hodgkin lymphoma.
Inside a statement on WednesdayThe Bournemouth midfielder said: “While this was a shock to me and my family, the prognosis is positive and I am confident that I will make a full recovery and start playing again as soon as possible.
“I would like to show my gratitude to the doctors, nurses, counselors and staff who have treated me during this time for their professionalism, warmth and understanding.
“I want to thank everyone at the Welsh Football Association because we may not be able to detect the disease without the rapid response of paramedics.”
Here, we provide more information on Hodgkin lymphoma and what the different stages of cancer mean for cure and survival rates. This information has come from a number of reputable sources, including Cancer Research UK, Macmillan and the NHS website.
What is Hodgkin lymphoma?
Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare cancer that develops in the lymphatic system, a network of vessels and glands that has spread throughout your body.
The lymphatic system is part of your immune system. The clear fluid called lymph flows through the lymphatic vessels and contains infection-fighting white blood cells known as lymphocytes.
In Hodgkin lymphoma, B-lymphocytes (a certain type of lymphocyte) begin to multiply abnormally and collect in certain parts of the lymphatic system, such as lymph nodes (glands). Affected lymphocytes lose their infection-fighting properties, making the person more vulnerable to infection.
Who usually gets it? Hodgkin lymphoma?
About 2,100 people are diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma each year in the UK.
It can develop at any age, but mostly affects young adults in their early 20s and adults over 70. Slightly more men than women are affected.
what are the symptoms Hodgkin lymphoma?
The most common symptom of Hodgkin lymphoma is painless swelling in a lymph node. This may be in an area of the body such as the neck, armpits, or groin.
Lymph nodes usually swell when we have an infection, but they usually return to normal within a short time. With lymphoma, the lymph nodes usually grow slowly and may remain there for months or years before they are noticed. But sometimes they grow too fast.
Usually swollen nodes don’t hurt, but some people say their lump is sore or sore. And for some, they are painful after drinking alcohol.
Other general symptoms include:
- heavy sweating, especially at night;
- high temperatures that come and go for no apparent reason, often during the night;
- losing a lot of weight in a short time despite good nutrition;
- itching, which may be worse after drinking alcohol;
- cough or shortness of breath;
- tummy (abdominal) pain or vomiting after drinking alcohol.
In addition, swollen lymph nodes can:
- press on the nerves and cause pain;
- causes swelling in the arms or legs by blocking the flow of lymph fluid in the body;
- It blocks the flow of bile from the liver, causing yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice).
However, the last three symptoms are less common.
What are the different stages Hodgkin lymphoma?
The stages of Hodgkin lymphoma provide information about the number and number of places in the body that are affected by lymphoma.
Knowing the stage of Hodgkin lymphoma helps your doctor decide what treatment a patient needs.
Doctors look at whether the lymphoma is on one or both sides of the diaphragm, and also whether it is inside or outside the lymphatic system. They will measure the size of the lymphoma. They do this by performing various tests, such as a CT or PET scan. They will also check to see if you have any symptoms.
The diaphragm, the large respiratory muscle that separates the thorax from the abdomen, is used as a guide because it is located about half of the body.
Doctors look to see if lymphoma affects:
- nodes and organs of the lymphatic system – these are called lymphatic sites
- Areas outside the lymphatic regions – called extranodal (or extralymphatic) areas
There are four stages in total:
- lymphoma in a single lymph node or a group of lymph nodes or in an organ of the lymphatic system (such as the thymus);
- lymphoma in the extranodal region (1E).
Treatment for stage 1 Hodgkin lymphoma is usually two to four cycles of chemotherapy. You can also receive radiotherapy.
About 90 out of 100 people (90%) will recover from Hodgkin lymphoma for five years or more after diagnosis.
This means one of the following:
- if your lymphoma is in groups of two or more lymph nodes;
- your lymphoma is in an extranodal region and in one or more lymph node groups (2E).
In both cases, the two lymphoma sites are on the same side of the diaphragm.
Treatment for stage two Hodgkin lymphoma is usually two to four cycles of chemotherapy. You can also receive radiotherapy.
About 90 out of 100 people (about 90%) will recover from Hodgkin lymphoma for five years or more after diagnosis.
This means there is lymphoma on both sides of the diaphragm.
An example is when the lymphoma is in the lymph nodes on either side of the diaphragm. Another example is lymphoma in the lymph nodes above the diaphragm as well as lymphoma in the spleen.
Treatment for stage 3 Hodgkin lymphoma is usually six to eight cycles of chemotherapy. You may receive steroids and radiotherapy as part of this.
About 80 out of 100 people (about 80%) will recover from Hodgkin lymphoma for five years or more after diagnosis.
Stage 4 means one of the following:
- Your lymphoma is in the extranodal region and the lymph nodes are affected
- If your lymphoma is in more than one extranodal region, such as the liver, bones, or lungs
Treatment for stage 4 Hodgkin lymphoma is usually six to eight cycles of chemotherapy. You may receive steroids and radiotherapy as part of this.
More than 70 out of 100 people (more than 70%) will survive Hodgkin lymphoma for five years or more after diagnosis.
What is the difference between Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma?
The primary difference between these two categories of lymph cancer is the type of lymphocyte affected.
Hodgkin lymphoma is marked by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells that a doctor can identify using a microscope. These cells are absent in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
In addition to the presence or absence of Reed-Sternberg cells, other differences between Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma include:
- Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is more common than Hodgkin lymphoma;
- Most non-Hodgkin patients were over 55 years of age when first diagnosed, with a median age of diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma of 39;
- While non-Hodgkin lymphoma can occur in lymph nodes anywhere in the body, Hodgkin lymphoma typically starts in the upper part of the body such as the neck, chest, or armpits.
Despite the many differences between these two types of lymph cancer, both have similar symptoms, such as enlarged lymph nodes, fatigue, weight loss, and fever.
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